1066 Normans conquer England

1169 Normans, led by Richard, Earl of Pembroke, "Strongbow", begin England's domination of Ireland

1541 Henry VIII of England proclaims himself King of Ireland, begins to drive rebel leaders from their lands, confiscating them to grant them to his own followers.

1601 Irish forces decisively defeated.  The "Flight of the Earls" occurs 7 years later.

1609 Era of "plantations" begin in Ulster, as English and Scottish Protestant "colonists" settle on Irish farms confiscated from the native Irish.

1649 Puritan general Oliver Cromwell and his army devastate Ireland after an attempted rebellion.  After massive death and destruction, many surviving Irish were shipped to work as slave labor in the West Indies, "hell", or transplanted to Connaught.  Land was confiscated from Catholics and awarded to English soldiers and officers.  Less than 10% of the land remained in native hands.

1691 Existing "Penal Laws" are expanded, stripping Catholics, Presbyterian and Non Conformists of civil and political rights, restricting their entry into certain trades, their right to own or inherit land, limiting the activities of their churches and clergy.  "The silent century" begins.

1791 Rights ostensibly restored except for that of holding elective office.

1829 Full Catholic emancipation.

1847 The Great Famine begins, accompanied by the death and emigration of millions.  (Population 50% loss to death and immigration in 20 years period)

1881 Land Act begins the process of land reform.

1916 Easter Uprising begins the final rebellion.

1921 Irish Free State created out of 26 southern counties, to be within the British Empire.  Six northern counties remain part of England. Civil war begins.

1922 Four Courts Fire destroys census records prior to 1901.

1923 Independent "Republic of Ireland" comes into existence.

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